Web documents have many of the same elements as print documents but there are some points you need to remember, they frequently move or are removed from a site. They often do not have page numbers, publication dates, or authors (see Missing Reference Information to help create appropriate in-text citations). So, it is important to state whatever information you have in your reference list and citation (see Webpage on a Website References for help in citing particular types of webpages).
Websites as a Whole
If you are referring to a website in its entirety, just refer to the name and website’s homepage address in the text of your paper. There is no need for a reference list entry.
Follow the author/date format as you would for a print resource.
Wilson, S. (2016). Oprah Winfrey & Stedman Graham marrying after 30 years: Why she’s giving in — report. http://hollywoodlife.com/2016/08/31/oprah-winfrey-stedman-graham-getting-married-wedding/
In-text citation (Wilson, 2016)
Webpage, No Author
Decide if the webpage really does not have an author. Look under “About Us” or an acknowledgement page. Serious authors will always provide enough information for you to create a citation (or even provide one for you, e.g., recommended citation). Think twice about citing something that does not have an author.
If you are unable to find an author, the title moves to the author position. Do not italicize the title, or add a period at the end of a web address.
Webpage, No Dates
If you want to cite a number of webpages from one website, and there are no dates, use (n.d.-a) and (n.d.-b) and so forth.
Bank Street College of Education. (n.d.-a). Continuing professional studies. https://graduate.bankstreet.edu/cps/
In-text citation (Bank Street College of Education, n.d.-a)
Bank Street College of Education. (n.d.-b). The delicate connection of people and the biology of the rainforest. https://www.bankstreet.edu/cps/study-abroad/costa-rica/
In-text citation (Bank Street College of Education, n.d.-b)
Bank Street College of Education. (n.d.-c). Building bridges to Cuba. https://graduate.bankstreet.edu/cps/travel-programs/cuba/
In-text citation (Bank Street College of Education, n.d.-c)
Webpage, No Page Numbers
If you are citing a direct quote and there is no page number, use the name of the chapter or heading where the quote appears.
“CPS travel programs are geared toward working educators who want to broaden their knowledge through experiences in other cultures.” (Bank Street College of Education, n.d.-a, Travel Programs).
(American Psychological Association, 2020, pp. 264-265, 286, 289)
- http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/cite-website.aspx ↵
- http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/10/how-to-cite-twitter-and-facebook-part-i.html ↵
- http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2014/11/how-to-cite-multiple-pages-from-the-same-website.html ↵